EARTH TESTING AND CURRENT INJECTION
RedPhase Earth Testing equipment is widely used to determine earth grid integrity and potential contour measurements in large grounding systems such as critical utility, telecommunications and industrial assets.
The 4051 lightning impulse impedance tester is used to inject a simulated lightning impulse signal at up to 30 Amps between two electrodes such as a Pylon footing and a remote test electrode.
A measurement of the ground impedance between between the two is determined automatically and if the operator so chooses they may also perform a further test to determine how the same impulse can affect the potential of a nearby metallic object within the impulse path.
Two tests are available:
– Direct Impedance test
– Electrode Impedance test
These tests may be performed with one or both of the impulse wave shapes below:
8 / 20uS
10 / 350uS
More impulse shapes are available upon request, (contact RPI), however the two outlined above have been found to give the most practical and consistently reliable results.
The ECT-4 is a 4 wire Kelvin micro-ohm meter used to check the electrical quality of metallic structures and their connection integrity to other bonded structures in grids and electrical systems such as a sub-station or transmission station.
A custom back pack carry case houses a power source which injects discrete levels of current at 1, 2 or 3 Amps directly between two points in the grid connected network.
The ECT-4 and it’s extension reel accessories allow this test to be performed over small or large distances using a single Earth reference.
The ECT-4 has filtering for excellent 50Hz and 60Hz rejection and also features 5 current direction modes to further mitigate DC offset and interference:
The 5 current direction modes are:
– Pulsed Forward – pulse duration can be changed in 1 second increments
– Pulsed Reverse – pulse duration can be changed in 1 second increments
– Pulsed Bipolar with or without dead time – dead time duration can be changed in 1 second increments
Measurements are taken with a moulded hand probe which includes twisting retractable stainless steel pins used to make the surface connection with a bonded metallic object.
The hand probe has a 5cm backlit LCD which displays the results of the bond down to a 10uΩ resolution.
The injection mode described above and current range can also be selected on the hand probe via three tactile push buttons.
The ECT-4 runs off a separate battery, also carried in the back pack, giving the operator single handed operation and superior mobility while performing continuity tests for over 5 hours.
The ECT-4 comes with all accessories necessary to begin testing straight out of the box.
Portable current injection system designed to simulate system fault currents and their effects on electrical and utility infrastructure such as:
– small to medium substations
– telecom towers
– transmission pylons
– wind turbines
– rail yards and their subs
– and other disconnected earthing systems…
– pure sinusoid injection current with frequency selection between 40Hz to 70Hz, in increments if 1Hz.
– on board web server including 3G/4G modem for remote status monitoring and injection control via mobile phone.
– on board GPS for cable-less phase synchronization with Red Phase 4031 and 4025E tuneable multimeters.
– 7 injection ranges to choose from:
160V / 1.25A on a 128 Ohm tap
120V / 1.67A on a 72 Ohm tap
80V / 2.5A on a 32 Ohm tap
60V / 3.33A on a 18 Ohm tap
40V / 5.0A on a 8 Ohm tap
30V / 6.67A on a 4.5 Ohm tap
20V / 10.0A on a 2 Ohm tap
– comes with trolley handle and wheels for ease of transport
– only 20 Kg.
The Model 4046 is a frequency adjustable switch mode current injection source that is used to drive the primary of a multi tapped coupling transformer to induce variable voltage and current magnitudes into an earth or passive load loop at maximum power continuously if required.
Typically the earth test loop / circuit consists of the earth grid under test connected to a remote earth grid through an earth path in the ground. To complete the loop, a return connecting path isolated from earth, usually an ‘out of service’ feeder or separate injection line is also used. The test current is driven around the loop by the secondary winding of the Model 4047C Coupling Transformer which is inserted into the loop.
Frequencies from 40Hz to 70Hz can be selectively generated by the 4046 to avoid interference with background line frequency.
Voltage drops generated by the injected current around the earth loop are measured with a frequency selective multimeter fixed to the current injection test
Measureable results over the test landscape can be profiled with the 4025E or 4031 frequency selective multimeter.
Both the 4025E or 4031 and the 4046 Injection system have a GPS function which is used for position location and phase synchronization which frees up the need for phase reference cabling during current split measurements and also provides relative positioning information so that the operator may choose the best line of potential measurement during EPR tests to avoid mutual coupling/induction.
The 4047/C is a 2kVA rated coupling transformer with eight individual tap settings covering an impedance range from5 to 400 Ohms.
Used in conjunction with the Model 4046 the tap selection must also be reflected in the tap menu settings of the Injection Unit which also drives the coupling transformer.
When the correct tap is chosen the Amplifier will see a large reflected load and it will be able to deliver maximum power.
The unit also comes with all necessary current, voltage and load sensing circuitry along with 2 fans and a thermal cut-out switch for safe operation over wide temperatures.
The Model 4041 is the largest of our switch mode current injection sources used for injection based testing.
This 3 phase unit works on the identical principle of operation as our 2kVA system, however the 4041 in conjunction with the 4042 coupling transformer have been specifically designed to perform current injection tasks over very long haul and demanding environments continuously at maximumpower.
With our 4025E or 4031 frequency selective multimeters, terrestrial voltage profiling is made easy with GPS positional information available on both the 4041 and 4025E/4031 units.
Another advantage of this is the ability for the two units to
synchronize phase readings, thus reducing the cabling
required when performing current split or branch
measurements and it also provides relative positioning
information so that the operator may choose the best line
of potential measurement during EPR tests to avoid
mutual coupling or induction.
Model 4042 is our largest coupling transformer, with eight secondary taps rated to 8kVA. The 8 taps on the 4042 allows the user to adjust the injection voltage and current to a desired value via individual tap settings whose impedance ranges from 1 to 80 Ohms.
When the correct tap is chosen and the tap menu settings on the injection unit is set to the same value, the amplifier will see a large reflected load and will deliver maximum power through this tap to drive current around the earth loop.
As with the lower power units, the primary of the coupling transformer is driven by the Model 4041 injection unit up to a nominal 320V. The various secondary taps on the 4042 translate the input from the injection unit to an output voltage range from 90V to 800V.
Each tap on the coupling transformer is connected to a feedback circuit which constantly senses the earth loop’s voltage and current / load. The injection unit uses this data to maintain a constant injection current at maximum power.
The 4042/3 also comes with cooling fans and a thermal cut out switch for safe operation.
When performing earthing/grounding system tests it is essential to filter out the predominant 50 or 60Hz currents that are often present in a typical test situation. This is done by injecting at frequencies other than 50 or 60Hz and making sure that the instrument which detects voltages and currents around the loop is tightly tuned to the same frequency.
The 4031 is a hand held frequency selective ammeter and voltmeter used to measure the I/V magnitudes and phase of signals induced into an earth loop via a high power current injection system such as the Model 4041 and 4046.
The voltmeter part of the 4031 allows, fall of potential and step & touch voltages to be measured easily and accurately, which is important for the safety of both
the general public and utility personnel.
In earth loops, measurements are made of voltage, current and phase angles enabling the impedance of the circuit to be calculated by the software.
The 4031 runs off an internal rechargeable Li-ion battery which lasts 5 to 6 hours.
The 4031 comes in two variations. A Rogowski coil type or a LEM~flex RR3020 AC current probe type, but not both. The Rogowski coil and LEM current probe are available as optional accessories.
The 4031 also has an on board GPS feature which is used for cable-less phase synchronization when performing current branch measurements.
The 4031 Multimeter operates in the 40 – 69 Hz range, rejecting both 50 Hz or 60 Hz power frequencies.
The high quality of the Multimeter’s filters allows it to be used at frequency resolutions to 0.1Hz deviation from the baseline power frequency with no interference.
The 4025E is the latest revision in our 4025 series of frequency selective multi-meters. It maintains all of the features of the previous models for measuring the I/V magnitudes and phase of signals induced into an earth loop via high power current injection.
The 4025E has been designed with better step resolution allowing for measurement of injection frequencies to 0.1 Hz off main line frequency without interference.
Designed to be used with our new GPS based injection products, it takes full advantage of the GPS features to synchronize with the injection system and provide the operator with cable free current phase referencing and a visual display of the operator’s relative position to the other injection points during large earth system potential measurements.
The 4025E runs off an internal rechargeable battery with a 7 to 8 hour field time before requiring re-charge.
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